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The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology

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key Papers

(still under construction - please send us your recommendations for additions, especially papers by authors with underrepresented backgrounds and perspectives!)

Inaugural HiTOP Paper

Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R., Bagby, R. M., Brown, T. A., Carpenter, W. T., Caspi, A., Clark, L. A., Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K. T., Goldberg, D., Hasin, D., Hyman, S. E., Ivanova, M. Y., Lynam, D. R., Markon, K., Miller, J. D., Moffitt, T. E., Morey, L. C., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Ormel, J., Patrick, C. J., Regier, D. A., Rescorla, L., Ruggero, C. J., Samuel, D. B., Sellbom, M., Simms, L. J., Skodol, A. E., Slade, T., South, S. C., Tackett, J. L., Waldman, I. D., Waszczuk, M. A., Widiger, T. A., Wright, A. G. C., & Zimmerman, M. (2017, March 23). The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A Dimensional Alternative to Traditional Nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000258 Full text

Clinical Translation

Balling, C. E., South, S. C., Lynam, D. R., & Samuel, D. B. (2023). Clinician Perception of the Clinical Utility of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) System. Clinical Psychological Science, 0(0). Full text

Forbush, K. T., Chen, P. Y., Hagan, K. E., Chapa, D. A., Gould, S. R., Eaton, N. R., & Krueger, R. F. (2018). A new approach to eating‐disorder classification: Using empirical methods to delineate diagnostic dimensions and inform care. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 51(7), 710-721.

Hagerty, S. L. (2023). Toward precision characterization and treatment of psychopathology: A path forward and integrative framework of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology and the Research Domain Criteria. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 18(1), 91-109.

Hopwood, C. J., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Widiger, T. A., Altoff, R. R., Ansell, E. B., Bach, B., Bagby, R. M., Bornovalova, M. A., Blais, M. A., Chmielewski, M., Cicero, D. C., Clark, L. A., Conway, C., De Clerq, B., De Fruyt, F., Docherty, A. R., Eaton, N. R., Edens, J. F., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K. T., Hengartner, M. P., Ivanova, M. Y, Leising, D., Livesley, W. J., Lukowitsky, M. R., Lynam, D.R., Markon, K.E., Miller, J. D., Morey, L. C., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Ormel, J. H., Patrick, C. J., Pincus, A. L., Ruggero, C., Samuel, D. B., Sellbom, M., Slade, T., Tackett, J. L., Thomas, K. M., Trull, T. J., Vachon, D. D., Waldman, I. D., Waszczuk, M. A., Waugh, M. H., Wright, A. G. C., Yalch, M. M., Zald, D. H., & Zimmermann, J. (2018). The time has come for dimensional personality disorder diagnosis. Personality and Mental Health, 12, 82–86.

Kotov, R., Cicero, D. C., Conway, C. C., DeYoung, C. G., Dombrovski, A., Eaton, N. R., First, M. B., Forbes, M. K., Hyman, S. E., Jonas, K. G., Krueger, R. F., Latzman, R. D., Li, J. J., Nelson, B. D., Regier, D. A., Rodriguez-Seijas, C., Ruggero, C. J., Simms, L. J., Skodol, A. E., Waldman, I. D., Waszczuk, M. A., Watson, D., Widiger, T. A., Wilson, S., Wright, A. G. C. (2022). The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) in psychiatric practice and research. Psychological medicine, 52(9), 1666–1678. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291722001301

Jonas, K.G., Stanton, K., Simms, L., Mullins-Sweatt, S.N., Guillot, S., Dainer, E., Nelson, B., Cohn, J.R., Cicero, D.C., & Ruggero, C.J. (2021) HiTOP Digital Assessment and Tracker (HiTOP-DAT Manual). Full text

Mullins‐Sweatt, S. N., Hopwood, C. J., Chmielewski, M., Meyer, N. A., Min, J., Helle, A. C., & Walgren, M. D. (2020). Treatment of personality pathology through the lens of the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology: Developing a research agenda. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 123-141. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1464

Ruggero, C. J., Callahan, J. L., Dornbach-Bender, A., Tackett, J., & Kotov, R. (2019). Disquiet in nosology: a primer on an emerging, empirically-based approach to classifying mental illness and implications for training. Behavior Therapist, 42, 208-11. Full text

Ruggero, C. J., Kotov, R., Hopwood, C. J., First, M., Clark, L. A., Skodol, A. E., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Patrick, C. J., Bach, B., Cicero, D. C., Docherty, A., Simms, L. J., Bagby, R. M., Krueger, R. F., Callahan, J. L., Chmielewski, M., Conway, C. C., De Clercq, B., Dornbach-Bender, A., Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K.T., Haltigan, J. D., Miller, J. D., Morey, L. C., Patalay, P., Regier, D. A., Reininghaus, U., Shackman, A. J., Waszczuk, M. A., Watson, D., Wright, A. G. C., Zimmermann, J. (2019). Integrating the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) into clinical practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology, 87(12), 1069–1084. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000452 Full text

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

Cicero, D., & Ruggero, C. (2021). Commentary–Opening a can of worms: The importance of testing the measurement invariance of hierarchical models of psychopathology–a commentary on He and Li (2020). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 62(3), 299-302.

Eaton, N. R., Rodriguez-Seijas, C., & Pachankis, J. E. (2021). Transdiagnostic approaches to sexual-and gender-minority mental health. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 30(6), 510-518. Preprint

He, Q., & Li, J. J. (2021). Factorial invariance in hierarchical factor models of mental disorders in African American and European American youths. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 62(3), 289-298. Preprint

Rodriguez-Seijas, C., Rogers, B. G., Harkness, A., Safren, S. A., & Pachankis, J. E. (2023). ParTy’n’Play: Associations Between Sex-Related Substance Use and the Disinhibited Externalizing Spectrum Among Gay and Bisexual Men. Clinical psychological science, 21677026231158062. Preprint

Rodriguez-Seijas, C., Li, J. J., Balling, C., Brandes, C., Bernat, E., Boness, C. L., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K. T., Joyner, K. J.,Krueger, R. F., Levin-Aspenson, H. F., Michelini, G., Ro, E., Rutter, L., Stanton, K., Tackett, J. L., Waszczuk, M., & Eaton, N. R. (2023). Diversity and the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). Nature Reviews Psychology, 1-13.

Verona, E. (2022). Assessment of HiTOP constructs across the population: A commentary on the HiTOP measure development project. Assessment, 29(1), 88-92.

Development

Tackett, J. L., & Hallquist, M. (2022). The need to grow: Developmental considerations and challenges for modern psychiatric taxonomies. Journal of Psychopathology and Clinical Science, 131(6), 660–663. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000751

Genetics

Jonas, K., Lencz, T., Li, K., Malhotra, A. K., Perlman, G., Fochtmann, L. J., Bromet, E. J., & Kotov, R. (2019). Schizophrenia polygenic risk score and 20-year course of illness in psychotic disorders. Translational Psychiatry, 9(1), 1–8. Full text

Waszczuk, M. A. (2021). The utility of hierarchical models of psychopathology in genetics and biomarker research. World Psychiatry, 20 (1), 65-66. Full text

Waszczuk, M. A. (2022). Insights from Dimensional Phenotypic Definitions of PTSD and Trauma in Genome Wide Association Studies. Biological Psychiatry 91 (7), 609-611. Full text

Waszczuk, M. A., Miao, J., Docherty, A. R., Shabalin, A. R., Jonas, K. G., Michelini, G., & Kotov, R. (2021). General vs. Specific Vulnerabilities: Polygenic Risk Scores and Higher-Order Psychopathology Dimensions in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD)Study. Psychological Medicine. Preprint

Measure Development

Cicero, D. C., Jonas, K. G., Chmielewski, M., Martin, E. A., Docherty, A. R., Berzon,J., Haltigan, J. D., Reininghaus, U., Caspi, A., Graziolplene, R. G., & Kotov, R. (2022). Developmentof the thought disorder measure for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology. Assessment, 29, 46-61.

Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Bornovalova, M. A., Carragher, N., Clark, L. A., Corona Espinosa, A., Jonas, K., Keyes, K. M., Lynam, D. R., Michelini, G., Miller, J. D., Min, J., Rodriguez-Seijas, C., Samuel, D. B., Tackett, J. L., & Watts, A. L. (2022). HiTOP Assessment of Externalizing Antagonism and Disinhibition. Assessment, 29(1), 34-45.

Sellbom, M., Forbush, K. T., Gould, S. R., Markon, K. E., Watson, D., & Witthöft, M.(2022). HiTOP Assessment of the Somatoform Spectrum and Eating Disorders. Assessment, 29, 62–74. Full text

Simms, L. J., Wright, A. G., Cicero, D., Kotov, R.,Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Sellbom, M., Watson, D., Widiger T. A., & Zimmermann, J. (2022). Development of measures for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): a collaborative scale development project. Assessment, 29, 3-16. Full text

Watson, D., Forbes, M. K., Levin-Aspenson, H. F., Ruggero, C. J., Kotelnikova, Y., Khoo, S, Bagby, R. M., Sunderland, M., Patalay, P., & Kotov, R. (2022). The development of preliminary HiTOP internalizing spectrum scales. Assessment, 29, 17–33. Link

Zimmermann, J., Widiger, T.A., Oeltjen, L., Conway, C. C., & Morey, L. C. (2022). Developing preliminary scales for assessing the HiTOP detachment spectrum. Assessment, 29, 75-87. Full text

Neurobiological Foundations

Latzman, R. D., DeYoung, C. G., & The HiTOP Neurobiological Foundations Workgroup. (2020). Using empirically-derived dimensional phenotypes to accelerate clinical neuroscience: The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) framework. Neuropsychopharmacology, 45(7), 1083–1085. Full text

Martin, E.A., Jonas, K.G., Lian, W., Foti, D., Donaldson, K.R., Bromet, E.J., & Kotov, R.  (2021). Predicting long-term outcomes in first-admission psychosis: Does the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) aid DSM in prognostication? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 47, 1331-1341. Full text

Michelini, G., Palumbo, I. M., DeYoung, C. G., Latzman, R. D., & Kotov, R. (2021). Linking RDoC and HiTOP: A new interface for advancing psychiatric nosology and neuroscience. Clinical Psychology Review, 86, Article 102025. Full text

Pasion, R., Ribes-Guardiola, P., Patrick, C., Steward, R.A., Paiva, T.O., Macedo, I., Barbosa, F., Brislin, S.J., Martin, E.A., Blain, S.D., Ruocco, A.C., Cooper, S.E., Tiego, J., Wilson, S., Goghari, V.M., and the HiTOP Neurobiological Foundations Workgroup (2023). Modeling relations of ERP factors with broader versus narrower dimensions of externalizing psychopathology. Under review. Preprint

Perkins, E. R.,* Joyner, K. J.,* Patrick, C. J., Bartholow, B. D., Latzman, R. D., DeYoung, C. G., Kotov, R., Reininghaus, U., Cooper, S. E., Afzali, M. H., Docherty, A. R., Dretsch, M. N., Eaton, N. R., Goghari, V. M., Haltigan, J. D., Krueger, R. F., Martin, E. A., Michelini, G., Ruocco, A. C., Tackett, J. L., Venables, N. C., Waldman, I. D., & Zald, D. H. (2020). Neurobiology and the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology: Progress toward ontogenetically informed and clinically useful nosology. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 22, 51-63. Full text

Tiego, J., Martin, E.A., DeYoung, C.G., Hagan, K., Cooper, S.E., Pasion, R., Satchell, L., Shackman, A.J., Bellgrove, M.A., Fornito, A., and the HiTOP Neurobiological Foundations Work Group (in press). Precision behavioral phenotyping as a strategy for uncovering the biological correlates of psychopathology. Nature Mental Health. Preprint

Watts, A. L., Latzman, R. D., Boness, C. L., Kotov, R., Keyser-Marcus, L., DeYoung, C. G., Krueger, R. F., Zald, D. H., Moeller, F. G., & Ramey, T. (2022). New approaches to deep phenotyping in addictions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Advance online publication. Preprint

Normal Personality

Adler, J. M., & Clark, L. A. (2019). Incorporating narrative identity into structural approaches to personality and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 82, 103857.

Brandes, C. M., & Tackett, J. L. (2019). Contextualizing neuroticism in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 238-245. Preprint

Conway, C. C., Li, Y. I., & Starr, L. R. (2019). Trait anhedonia is a transdiagnostic correlate of internalizing problems during adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 56-63.

Eaton, N. R. (2020). Measurement and mental health disparities: Psychopathology classification and identity assessment. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 76-87. 

DeYoung, C. G., Chmielewski, M., Clark, L. A., Condon, D. M., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Lynam, D. R., Markon, K. E., Miller, J. D., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Samuel, D. B., Sellbom, M., South, S. C., Thomas, K. M., Watson, D., Watts, A. L., Widiger, T. A., Wright, A. G. C. & the HiTOP Normal Personality Workgroup. (2022). The distinction between symptoms and traits in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). Journal of Personality, 90, 20-33. Full text  

Kotelnikova, Y., Weaver, C. A., & Clark, L. A. (2019). The joint structure of maladaptive personality traits and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 64-71

Lynam, D. R., & Miller, J. D. (2019). The basic trait of Antagonism: An unfortunately underappreciated construct. Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 118-126. Preprint

Laceulle, O. M., Chung, J. M., Vollebergh, W. A., & Ormel, J. (2020). The wide‐ranging life outcome correlates of a general psychopathology factor in adolescent psychopathology. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 9-29. Full text

Longenecker, J. M., Krueger, R. F., & Sponheim, S. R.(2020). Personality traits across the psychosis spectrum: A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology conceptualization of clinical symptomatology. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 88-105. Full text

Mullins‐Sweatt, S. N.,Hopwood, C. J., Chmielewski, M., Meyer, N. A., Min, J., Helle, A. C., & Walgren, M. D. (2020). Treatment of personality pathology through the lens of the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology: Developing a research agenda. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 123-141. Full text

Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., DeShong, H. L., Lengel, G. J., Helle, A. C., & Krueger, R. F. (2019). Disinhibition as a unifying construct in understanding how personality dispositions undergird psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 80, 55-61. Full text  

Perkins, E. R., Latzman, R. D., & Patrick, C. J. (2020). Interfacing neural constructs with the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology: ‘Why' and ‘How'. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 106-122.

Ringwald, W. R., Beeney, J. E., Pilkonis, P. A., & Wright, A. G. (2019). Comparing hierarchical models of personality pathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 98-107. Full text

Sellbom, M., Carragher, N., Sunderland, M., Calear, A. L., & Batterham, P. J. (2020). The role of maladaptive personality domains across multiple levels of the HiTOP structure. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1), 30-50.

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (2020). Personality traits as an organizing framework for personality pathology. Personality and Mental Health, 14(1),51-75. Full text

Watson, D., Stanton, K., Khoo, S., Ellickson-Larew, S., & Stasik-O'Brien, S. M. (2019). Extraversion and psychopathology: A multilevel hierarchical review. Journal of Research in Personality, 81, 1-10.      

Watts, A. L., Poore, H. E., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Waldman, I. D. (2019). Clarifying the associations between big five personality domains and higher-order psychopathology dimensions in youth. Journal of Research in Personality, 82.

Widiger, T. A., Bach, B., Chmielewski, M., Clark, L. A., DeYoung, C., Hopwood, C. J., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Miller, J. D., Morey,L. C., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Patrick, C. J., Pincus, A. L., Samuel, D. B.,Sellbom, M., South, S. C., Tackett, J. L., Watson, D., Waugh, M. H., Wright, A.G. C., Zimmermann, J., Bagby, R. M., Cicero, D. C., Conway, C. C., De Clercq, B., Docherty, A. R., Eaton, N. R., Forbush, K. T., Haltigan, J. D., Ivanova, M.Y., Latzman, R. D., Lynam, D. R., Markon, K. E., Reininghaus, U., & Thomas, K. M. (2019). Criterion A of the AMPD in HiTOP. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101, 345-355. Full text   

Widiger, T. A., & Crego, C. (2019). HiTOP thought disorder, DSM-5 psychoticism, and Five Factor Model openness. Journal of Research in Personality, 80, 72-77.      

Widiger, T. A., Sellbom, M., Chmielewski,, M., Clark, L. A., DeYoung, C. G., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Lynam, D. R., Miller, J. D., Mullins-Sweatt, S., Samuel, D. B., South, S. C., Tackett, J. L., Thomas, K. M., Watson, D., & Wright, A. G. C. (2019). Personality in a hierarchical model of psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science, 7, 77-92 Preprint

Quantitative Methods

Forbes, M. K., Greene, A. L., Levin-Aspenson, H. F., Watts, A. L., Hallquist, M., Lahey, B. B., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., Tackett, J. L., Waldman, I. D., Wright, A. G. C., Caspi, A., Ivanova, M., Kotov, R., Samuel, D. B., Eaton, N. R., & Krueger, R. F. (2021). Three recommendations based on a comparison of the reliability and validity of the predominant models used in research on the empirical structure of psychopathology. Journal of abnormal psychology, 130(3), 297–317. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000533 Preprint

Greene, A. L., Eaton, N. R., Li, K., Forbes, M. K., Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Waldman, I. D., Cicero, D. C., Conway, C. C., Docherty, A. R., Fried, E. I., Ivanova, M. Y., Jonas, K. G., Latzman, R. D., Patrick, C. J., Reininghaus, U., Tackett, J. L., Wright, A. G. C., & Kotov, R. (2019). Are fit indices used to test psychopathology structure biased? A simulation study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 128(7), 740–764. Full text

Waldman, I. D., King, C. D., Poore, H. E., Luningham, J. M., Zinbarg, R. M., Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Bornovalova, M., Chmielewski, M., Conway, C., Dretsch, M., Eaton, N., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K., Gainey, K., Greene, A. L., Haltigan, J. D., Ivanova, M., Joyner, K., Keyes, K. M., King, K. M., Kotov, R., Levin-Aspenson, H., Olino, T., Oliver, J. A., Patrick, C. J., Preece, D., Rutter, L. A., Sellbom, M., South, S., Wagner, N. J., Watts, A. L., Wilson, S., Wright, A. G. C., & Zald, D. (2022). Recommendations for Adjudicating Among Alternative Structural Models of Psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science. Preprint

Revisions

Forbes, M. K., Ringwald, W. R., Allen, T., Cicero, D. C., Clark, L. A., DeYoung, C. G., Eaton, N., Naragon-Gainey, K., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Latzman, R. D., Martin, E. A., Ruggero, C. J., Waldman, I. D., Brandes, C., Fried, E. I., Goghari, V. M., Hankin, B., Sperry, S., Stanton, K., Aftab, A., Lynam, D., Roche, M., & Wright, A. G. (2023). Principles and procedures for revising the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology. Preprint

Utility

Conway, C. C., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K. T., Fried, E. I., Hallquist, M. N., Kotov, R., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Shackman, A. J., Skodol, A. E., South, S. C., Sunderland, M., Waszczuk, M. A., Zald, D. H., Afzali, M. H., Bornovalova, M. A., Carragher, N., Docherty, A. R., Jonas, K. G., Krueger, R. F., Patalay, P., Pincus, A. L., Tackett, J. L., Reininghaus, U., Waldman, I. D., Wright, A. G. C., Zimmermann, J., Bach, B., Bagby, R. M., Chmielewski, M., Cicero, D. C., Clark, L. A., Dalgleish, T., DeYoung, C. G., Hopwood, C. J., Ivanova, M. Y., Latzman, R. D., Patrick, C. J., Ruggero, C. J., Samuel, D. B., Watson, D., & Eaton, N. R. (2019). A hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology can transform mental health research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14, 419-436. Full text

Conway, C. C., Forbes, M. K., & South, S. C. (2022). A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) primer for mental health researchers. Clinical Psychological Science, 10(2), 236-258. Full text

Conway, C. C., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., & Caspi, A. (in press). Translating the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP) from potential to practice: Ten research questions. American Psychologist. Advance online publication. Preprint

Conway, C. C., Krueger, R. F., & HiTOP Consortium Executive Board. (2021). Rethinking the Diagnosis of Mental Disorders: Data-Driven Psychological Dimensions, Not Categories, as a Framework for Mental-Health Research, Treatment, and Training. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 30, 151-158. Preprint

Forbush, K. T., Chen, Y., Chen, P-Y., Bohrer, B. K., Hagan, K. E., Chapa, D. A. N., Christensen Pacella, K. A., Perko, V., Richson, B. N., Johnson Munguia, S. N., Thomeczek, M. L., Nelson, S. V., Christian, K., Swanson, T. J., & Wildes, J. E. (in press). Integrating “lumpers” versus “splitters” perspectives: Toward a hierarchical dimensional taxonomy of eating disorders from clinician ratings. Clinical Psychological Science.

Kim, H., Turiano, N. A., Forbes, M. K., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Eaton, N. R., & HiTOP Utility Workgroup. (2021). Internalizing psychopathology and all‐cause mortality: a comparison of transdiagnostic vs. diagnosis‐based risk prediction. World Psychiatry, 20, 276-282. Full text

Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., & Watson, D.(2018). A paradigm shift in psychiatric classification: the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). World Psychiatry, 17, 25-26.

Validity Evidence and Updated Reviews

Kotov, R., Jonas, K. G., Carpenter, W. T.,Dretsch, M. N., Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K. T., Hobbs, K.,Reininghaus, U., Slade, T., South, S. C., Sunderland, M., Waszczuk, M. A.,Widiger, T. A., Wright, A. G. C., Zald, D. H., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D.,& HiTOP Utility Workgroup. (2020). Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): I. Psychosis superspectrum. World Psychiatry, 19, 151-172.

Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Cicero, D. C., Conway, C. C., DeYoung, C. G.,Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K., Hallquist, M. N., Latzman, R. D., Mullins-Sweatt,S. N., Ruggero, C. J., Simms, L. J., Waldman, I. D., Waszczuk, M. A., & Wright, A. G. (2021). The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A quantitative nosology based on consensus of evidence. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 17, 83-108. 

Krueger, R.F., Hobbs, K.A., Conway, C.C., Dick, D.M., Dretsch, M.N.,Eaton, N.R., Forbes, M.K., Forbush, K.T., Keyes, K.M., Latzman, R.D.,Michelini, G. Patrick, C.J., Sellbom, M., Slade, T.,  South, S.C.,Sunderland, M., Tackett, J., Waldman, I., Waszczuk, M.A., Wright, A.G.C., Zald,D.H., Watson, D., Kotov, R., & HiTOP Utility Workgroup. (2021). Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): II. Externalizing superspectrum. World Psychiatry, 20, 171-193. Full text

Krueger, R. F., Kotov, R., Watson, D., Forbes, M. K., Eaton, N. R., Ruggero, C. J., Simms, L.J., Widiger, T. A., Achenbach, T. M., Bach, B., Bagby, R. M., Bornovalova, M.A., Carpenter, W. T., Chmielewski, M., Cicero, D., Clark, L. A., Conway, C., DeClercq, B., DeYoung, C. G., Docherty, A. R., Drislane, L. E., First, M. B.,Forbush, K. T., Hallquist, M., Haltigan, J. D., Hopwood, C. J., Ivanova, M. Y.,Jonas, K. G., Latzman, R. D., Markon, K. E., Miller, J. D., Morey, L. C.,Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Ormel, J., Patalay, P., Patrick, C. J., Pincus, A. L.,Regier, D. A., Reininghaus, U., Rescorla, L. A., Samuel, D. B., Sellbom, M.,Shackman, A., Skodol, A., Slade, T., South, S. C., Sunderland, M., Tackett, J.L., Venables, N. C., Waldman, I. D., Waszczuk, M. A., Waugh, M. H., Wright, A.G. C., Zald, D. H., Zimmermann, J. (in press). Progress in achievingquantitative classification of psychopathology. World Psychiatry, 17, 282 – 293. Full text

Watson, D., Levin-Aspenson, H. F., Waszczuk, M. A., Conway, C. C., Dalgleish, T.,Dretsch, M. N., Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K., Forbush, K. T., Hobbs, K. A., Michelini, G., Nelson, B. D., Sellbom, M., Slade, T., South, S. C., Sunderland,M., Waldman, I., Witthöft, M., Wright, A. G. C., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F.,& HiTOP Utility Workgroup. (2022). Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): III. Emotional dysfunction superspectrum. World Psychiatry, 21, 26-54. 

Tests of the Model - Meta-Analytic

Ringwald, W. R., Forbes, M. K., & Wright, A. G. (2023). Meta-analysis of structural evidence for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model. Psychological medicine, 53(2), 533-546. Preprint

Ringwald, W. R., Forbes, M. K., & Wright, A. G. (2022). Meta-analytic tests of measurement invariance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology across common methodological characteristics. Journal of psychopathology and clinical science, 131(8), 847-856. Preprint

Tests of the Model - Fine-Grained (Within-Person or Symptom-Level)

Forbes, M. K., Sunderland, M., Rapee, R. M., Batterham, P. J., Calear, A. L., Carragher, N., Ruggero, C., Zimmerman, M., Baillie, A. J., Lynch, S. J., Mewton, L., Slade, T., & Krueger, R. F. (2021). A detailed hierarchical model of psychopathology: From individual symptoms up to the general factor of psychopathology. Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 9(2), 139–168. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702620954799

Wright, A. G., Beltz, A. M., Gates, K. M., Molenaar, P. C., & Simms, L. J. (2015). Examining the dynamic structure of daily internalizing and externalizing behavior at multiple levels of analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1914. Full text

Key Critiques of HiTOP

DeYoung, C. G., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Cicero, D. C., Conway, C. C., Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K., Hallquist, M. N., Jonas, K., Latzman, R. D., Rodriguez-Seijas, C., Ruggero, C. J., Simms, L. J., Waldman, I. D., Waszczuk, M. A., Widiger, T., & Wright, A. G. C. (in press). Answering questions about the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): Analogies to whales and sharks miss the boat. Clinical Psychological ScienceFull text [Response to Haeffel et al. (2022a) below]

Haeffel, G. J., Jeronimus, B. F., Kaiser, B. N., Weaver, L. J., Soyster, P. D., Fisher, A. J., Vargas, I., Goodson, J. T., & Lu, W. (2022a). Folk classification and factor rotations: Whales, sharks, and the problems with the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). Clinical Psychological Science, 10(2), 259-278. https://doi.org/10.1177/21677026211002500

Haeffel, G. J., Jeronimus, B. F., Fisher, A. J., Kaiser, B. N., Weaver, L. J., Vargas, I., Goodson, J. T., Soyster, P. D., & Lu, W. (2022b). The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP) is not an improvement over the DSM. Clinical Psychological Science, 10(2), 285-290. https://doi.org/10.1177/21677026211068873

Reed, G. M. (2018). HiTOP must meet the use requirements of the ICD before it can aspire to replace it. World Psychiatry, 17(3), 296. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20560

Wittchen, H. U., & Beesdo‐Baum, K. (2018). “Throwing out the baby with the bathwater”? Conceptual and methodological limitations of the HiTOP approach. World Psychiatry, 17(3), 298. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20561

Zimmerman, M. (2021). Why hierarchical dimensional approaches to classification will fail to transform diagnosis in psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 20(1), 70. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20815

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